Bodong Shang







Durham Hall, 1145 Perry Street, Blacksburg, VA, USA



PhD, at present

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, US

The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Electrical and Computer Engineering



M.S. degree, 2018

Xidian University, China

School of Telecommunications Engineering

Communication and Information System



B.Eng. degree, 2015

Northwest University, China

School of Information Science and Technology

Communication Engineering




Current Research Interests

Communication theory, network planning, MIMO communications, machine learning, heterogeneous cellular networks, D2D communications, wireless information and power transfer, machine learning, etc.




B. Shang, L. Zhao, K. C. Chen and X. Chu, "Wireless-Powered Device-to-Device Assisted Offloading in Cellular Networks", in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1012-1026, Dec. 2018. [PDF]

B. Shang, L. Zhao, K. C. Chen and X. Chu, "An Economic Aspect of Device-to-Device Assisted Offloading in Cellular Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 2289-2304, April 2018. [PDF]

B. Shang, L. Zhao and K. C. Chen, "Operator's Economy of Device-to-Device Offloading in Underlaying Cellular Networks", in IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 865-868, April 2017. [PDF]

B. Shang, L. Zhao and K. Chen, "Enabling device-to-device communications in LTE-unlicensed spectrum," 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris, 2017, pp. 1-6. [PDF]

B. Shang, L. Zhao, K. Chen and X. Chu, "Energy Efficient D2D-Assisted Offloading with Wireless Power Transfer," GLOBECOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference, Singapore, 2017, pp. 1-6. [PDF]

B. Shang, L. Zhao, K. Chen and G. Zhao, "Energy-Efficient Device-to-Device Communication in Cellular Networks," 2016 IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Nanjing, 2016, pp. 1-5. [PDF]

G. Liu, L. Zhao, B. Shang, X. Chu and K. Chen, "Optimal Pricing Strategy for Telecom Operator in Cellular Networks with Random Topologies," 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Kansas City, MO, 2018, pp. 1-6. [PDF]

X. Rao, L. Zhao, B. Shang and K. Chen, "Performance Analysis of Wireless-Powered Cellular Networks with Randomly Deployed Power Beacons," 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Kansas City, MO, 2018, pp. 1-6. [PDF]


Selected Past Research Topics

1. Economics of D2D traffic offloading

With the fast-growing data traffic and the explosive increase of mobile devices, network economy has become an important aspect of mobile network operations under limited radio resources. To serve the heavy traffic in future cellular networks, device-to-device (D2D) communication has been considered to alleviate the traffic burden on base stations (BSs) by exploiting physical proximity of devices. The success of D2D communications relies on the willingness of users to share contents.

Existing works on D2D communications have studied resource and power allocation, mode selection, spectral and energy efficiency. From the operator's perspective, it is of more interest to consider economic benefits from operation, such as cost for operating, and so on, which serves our unique holistic view on D2D communications. Previous works have not considered the operator's profit with respect to D2D assisted offloading especially from system-level perspective. The interrelation between pricing incentives and transmit powers at both BS and D2D transmitters (D2D-Txs) (and thus the co-channel interference) is not well understood yet.

• Studied an economic aspect of traffic offloading via content sharing among multiple devices and proposed an incentive framework for D2D assisted offloading. In the proposed incentive framework, the operator improves its overall profit, defined as the network economic efficiency (ECE), by encouraging users to act as D2D transmitters (D2D-Txs) which broadcast their popular contents to nearby users.

• Analytically characterized D2D assisted offloading in cellular networks for two operating modes: 1) underlay mode and 2) overlay mode. Modeled the optimization of network ECE as a two-stage Stackelberg game while considering the densities of cellular users and D2D-Txs, the operator's incentives and the popularity of contents. The closed-form expressions of network ECE for both underlay and overlay modes of D2D communications were obtained.

• Numerical results showed that the achievable network ECE of the proposed incentive D2D assisted offloading network can be significantly improved with respect to the conventional cellular networks where the D2D communications were disabled.

2. Wireless powered D2D-assisted offloading

Offloading cellular traffic to device-to-device (D2D) communications has been proposed to improve the network capacity and to alleviate the traffic burden on base stations (BSs). However, as mobile devices are powered by limited battery energy, there is no obligation for D2D transmitters (D2D-Txs) to offload cellular traffic through D2D content sharing. Dedicated wireless power transfer (WPT) through electromagnetic radiation has emerged as a cost-effective technique to enable on-demand energy supplies and uninterrupted operations.

We incorporated WPT into D2D communications to facilitate D2D-assisted cellular traffic offloading. Considering the increasing power consumption of wireless networks, we proposed an energy efficient wireless-powered D2D-assisted offloading (WPDO) network, where the D2D-Txs scavenge RF energy from the nearest BS by pointing beams towards them as well as the ambient RF energy emitted by other BSs, and utilize the harvested energy to share popular contents with content requesters located in the D2D-Txs' offloading regions. In the offloading regions, the quality-of-service (QoS) requirements of the offloaded UEs (i.e., the D2D receivers) can be guaranteed. By leveraging tools from stochastic geometry, we evaluated the energy efficiency of the WPDO network and provided insights into the network design from a system-level perspective.

• Modeled and analyzed the wireless-powered D2D-assisted offloading (WPDO) in cellular networks, where the D2D-Txs can harvest radio frequency (RF) energy from nearby BSs and utilize the harvested energy to share popular contents with nearby user equipments (UEs). Stochastic geometry was used to characterize the intrinsic relationship between the wireless power transfer (WPT) and the information transmission.

• Based on the proposed model, we derived the average transmit power at D2D-Tx, the expected minimum transmit power at BS, the D2D outage probability, and the cellular downlink outage probability. We also investigated and maximized the energy efficiency of the WPDO network from a system-level perspective.

• Simulation and numerical results showed that the energy efficiency of the WPDO network can be maximized by optimizing the fraction of time allocated for WPT and it can be further improved by using massive antenna arrays at each BS and by sharing more popular contents between devices.

3. LTE-Unlicensed D2D communications

To alleviate the ever-growing data traffic volume in cellular networks suffering from the scarcity of licensed radio spectrum, deploying LTE in the Unlicensed (LTE-U) industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands has been considered as a groundbreaking technology to address the increasing scarcity of available spectrum by extending cellular communications to unlicensed band, particularly focusing on the less congested 5GHz band with carrier aggregation. At the same time, as the density of mobile devices dramatically increases, users in proximity can communicate with each other through the direct links, known as device-to-device (D2D) communications.

The advantages of incorporating D2D communications into cellular networks include providing high-speed data rate, traffic offloading and coverage expansion, etc. However, the mutual interference between cellular networks and D2D communications utilizing licensed band would be more significant in hot-spots areas as well as ultra-dense networks (UDN) that plays a dominant role in wireless evolution to 5G. In accordance with these challenges, we investigated the case that D2D communications under LTE-U scenario by leveraging the analysis of stochastic geometry.

Compared with the existing direct technologies on unlicensed band such as WiFi direct, Bluetooth, etc., LTE-U D2D has the advantages of efficient peer discovery and link establishment, as well as flexible power control and radio resource management (RRM). Since the unlicensed band is mainly occupied by WiFi technology, the effective heterogeneity and harmonious coexistence between D2D and WiFi should be characterized.

• Modeled the transmissions in unlicensed band as hard core point processes (HCPPs) and thus the transmission probabilities of D2D and WiFi access points (APs) were obtained via the clear channel assessment (CCA) mechanism.

• By characterizing the intra-tier and inter-tier interferences in such complex communication networks, the average transmit power for the D2D link was investigated given that the user's QoS can be guaranteed. The throughput of a typical WiFi AP in the large scale networks was theoretically analyzed, and the outage probability of a D2D link was characterized which results from insufficient transmit power under a pre-determined QoS requirement.

• Simulations justified successful D2D communications in the LTE-U operation and validated the accuracy of this analytical approach.



Professional Activities

• Reviewer of the international journals including IEEE Communications Letters, IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, IEEE Access, Physical Communication Elsevier, etc.

• Outstanding reviewer, Physical Communication, Elsevier.

• TPC member of the IEEE 2017-spring Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC).

• TPC member of the IEEE 2019, 2018 Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC).

• Session chair in the mobile and wireless networks symposium of the IEEE 2017 Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM).



Major Honors and Awards

• First Prize of Outstanding Graduation Thesis, Xidian University, 2018.

• Outstanding Graduate Student, Xidian University, 2018.

• Dean's List of Outstanding Student, Xidian University, 2018.

• Outstanding reviewer, Physical Communication, ELSEVIER, 2017.

• National scholarship for Postgraduate Student, Ministry of Education, 2017.

• Dean's List of Outstanding Student, Xidian University, 2017.

• National scholarship for Postgraduate Student, Ministry of Education, 2016.

• Dean's List of Outstanding Student, Xidian University, 2016.

• First Class Scholarship for Postgraduate Student, Xidian University, 2015.

Outstanding Undergraduate Diploma Thesis, Northwest University, 2015.

• First Class Scholarship for Excellent Undergraduate Student, Northwest University, 2013.

• National Second Prize for Undergraduate Electronics Design Contest, 2013.

• First Prize in Shaanxi Province for Undergraduate Electronics Design Contest, 2013.

• National Third Prize for Undergraduate Mathematics Competition, 2012.

• First Class Scholarship for Excellent Undergraduate Student, Northwest University, 2012.